from small one page howto to huge articles all in one place
 

search text in:





Poll
Which kernel version do you use?





poll results

Last additions:
using iotop to find disk usage hogs

using iotop to find disk usage hogs

words:

887

views:

91166

userrating:

average rating: 1.7 (82 votes) (1=very good 6=terrible)


May 25th. 2007:
Words

486

Views

207013

why adblockers are bad


Workaround and fixes for the current Core Dump Handling vulnerability affected kernels

Workaround and fixes for the current Core Dump Handling vulnerability affected kernels

words:

161

views:

88561

userrating:

average rating: 1.3 (28 votes) (1=very good 6=terrible)


April, 26th. 2006:

Druckversion
You are here: manpages





RAND

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (3)
Updated: 2015-03-02
Index Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

rand, rand_r, srand - pseudo-random number generator  

SYNOPSIS

#include <stdlib.h>

int rand(void);

int rand_r(unsigned int *seedp);

void srand(unsigned int seed);

Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

rand_r(): _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 1 || _XOPEN_SOURCE || _POSIX_SOURCE  

DESCRIPTION

The rand() function returns a pseudo-random integer in the range 0 to RAND_MAX inclusive (i.e., the mathematical range [0, RAND_MAX]).

The srand() function sets its argument as the seed for a new sequence of pseudo-random integers to be returned by rand(). These sequences are repeatable by calling srand() with the same seed value.

If no seed value is provided, the rand() function is automatically seeded with a value of 1.

The function rand() is not reentrant, since it uses hidden state that is modified on each call. This might just be the seed value to be used by the next call, or it might be something more elaborate. In order to get reproducible behavior in a threaded application, this state must be made explicit; this can be done using the reentrant function rand_r().

Like rand(), rand_r() returns a pseudo-random integer in the range [0, RAND_MAX]. The seedp argument is a pointer to an unsigned int that is used to store state between calls. If rand_r() is called with the same initial value for the integer pointed to by seedp, and that value is not modified between calls, then the same pseudo-random sequence will result.

The value pointed to by the seedp argument of rand_r() provides only a very small amount of state, so this function will be a weak pseudo-random generator. Try drand48_r(3) instead.  

RETURN VALUE

The rand() and rand_r() functions return a value between 0 and RAND_MAX (inclusive). The srand() function returns no value.  

ATTRIBUTES

For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).
InterfaceAttributeValue
rand(), rand_r(), srand() Thread safetyMT-Safe
 

CONFORMING TO

The functions rand() and srand() conform to SVr4, 4.3BSD, C89, C99, POSIX.1-2001. The function rand_r() is from POSIX.1-2001. POSIX.1-2008 marks rand_r() as obsolete.  

NOTES

The versions of rand() and srand() in the Linux C Library use the same random number generator as random(3) and srandom(3), so the lower-order bits should be as random as the higher-order bits. However, on older rand() implementations, and on current implementations on different systems, the lower-order bits are much less random than the higher-order bits. Do not use this function in applications intended to be portable when good randomness is needed. (Use random(3) instead.)  

EXAMPLE

POSIX.1-2001 gives the following example of an implementation of rand() and srand(), possibly useful when one needs the same sequence on two different machines.

static unsigned long next = 1;

/* RAND_MAX assumed to be 32767 */
int myrand(void) {
    next = next * 1103515245 + 12345;
    return((unsigned)(next/65536) % 32768);
}

void mysrand(unsigned int seed) {
    next = seed;
}

The following program can be used to display the pseudo-random sequence produced by rand() when given a particular seed.


#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int j, r, nloops;
    unsigned int seed;

    if (argc != 3) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <seed> <nloops>\n", argv[0]);
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }

    seed = atoi(argv[1]);
    nloops = atoi(argv[2]);

    srand(seed);
    for (j = 0; j < nloops; j++) {
        r =  rand();
        printf("%d\n", r);
    }

    exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}
 

SEE ALSO

drand48(3), random(3)  

COLOPHON

This page is part of release 3.81 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
RETURN VALUE
ATTRIBUTES
CONFORMING TO
NOTES
EXAMPLE
SEE ALSO
COLOPHON


Please read "Why adblockers are bad".



Other free services
toURL.org
Shorten long
URLs to short
links like
http://tourl.org/2
tourl.org
.
Reverse DNS lookup
Find out which hostname(s)
resolve to a
given IP or other hostnames for the server
www.reversednslookup.org
rdf newsfeed | rss newsfeed | Atom newsfeed
- Powered by LeopardCMS - Running on Gentoo -
Copyright 2004-2013 Sascha Nitsch Unternehmensberatung UG(haftungsbeschränkt)
Valid XHTML1.1 : Valid CSS : buttonmaker
- Level Triple-A Conformance to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 -
- Copyright and legal notices -
Time to create this page: 3.5 ms