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using iotop to find disk usage hogs

using iotop to find disk usage hogs






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May 25th. 2007:




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Workaround and fixes for the current Core Dump Handling vulnerability affected kernels

Workaround and fixes for the current Core Dump Handling vulnerability affected kernels






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April, 26th. 2006:

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Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: July 2014
Index Return to Main Contents


ls - list directory contents  


ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...  


List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, --all
do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..
with -l, print the author of each file
-b, --escape
print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below
-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~
with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
list entries by columns
colorize the output; WHEN can be 'never', 'auto', or 'always' (the default); more info below
-d, --directory
list directories themselves, not their contents
-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
likewise, except do not append '*'
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
like -l --time-style=full-iso
like -l, but do not list owner
group directories before files;
can be augmented with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
-G, --no-group
in a long listing, don't print group names
-h, --human-readable
with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line
follow each command line symbolic link
that points to a directory
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
-i, --inode
print the index number of each file
-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k, --kibibytes
default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage
use a long listing format
-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)
like -l, but do not list group information
-p, --indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories
-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of nongraphic characters
show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)
-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting
-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively
-s, --size
print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
sort by file size
sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time: atime or access or use (-u) ctime or status (-c); also use specified time as sort key if --sort=time
with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in 'date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
sort by modification time, newest first
-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time
do not sort; list entries in directory order
natural sort of (version) numbers within text
-w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value
list entries by lines instead of by columns
sort alphabetically by entry extension
-Z, --context
print any security context of each file
list one file per line
display this help and exit
output version information and exit

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.  

Exit status:

if OK,
if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

GNU coreutils online help: <> Report ls translation bugs to <>  


Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.  


Copyright © 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.  


The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info coreutils aqls invocationaq

should give you access to the complete manual.



Exit status:

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